2020台灣春季高考英語的6選4即選句填空的語篇節選自露西•斯特蘭傑(Lucy Strange)文學作品《夜莺林的機密》(The Secretof Nightingale Wood)，考核先生懂得剖析主人公在分歧情境中的情緒和行動的才能。
露西•斯特蘭傑（Lucy Strange）在成爲壹位教員之前，曾從事過演員、歌手和故事作者等多種職業。露西已經棲身在迪拜，在那兒她推出了本身的獲獎博客‘Homesick and Heatstruck’。《夜莺林的機密》（The Secretof Nightingale Wood）是她的首部小說作品。
Deep reading is the active process of thoughtful and deliberate readingcarried out to enhance> text.Contrast with skimming or superficial reading. Also called slow reading.
The term deep readingwas coined by Sven Birkerts in The Gutenberg Elegies(1994): "Reading, because we control it, is adaptable to our needs and rhythms. We are free to indulge our subjective associative impulse; the term I coin for this is deep reading: the slow and meditative possession of a book. We don't just read the words, we dream our lives in their vicinity."
"Bydeep reading, we mean the array of sophisticated processes that propel comprehension and that include inferentialand deductivereasoning, analogical skills, critical analysis, reflection, and insight. The expert reader needs milliseconds to execute these processes; the young brain needs years to develop them. Both of these pivotal dimensions of time are potentially endangered by the digital culture's pervasive emphases>(Maryanne Wolf and Mirit Barzillai, "The Importance of Deep Reading."Challenging the Whole Child: Reflections>, ed. by Marge Scherer. ASCD, 2009)
"[D]eep readingrequires human beings to call upon and develop attentional skills, to be thoughtful and fully aware. . . .Unlike watching television or engaging in the other illusions of entertainment and pseudo-events, deep reading is not an escape, but a discovery. Deep reading provides a way of discovering how we are all connected to the world and to our own evolving stories. Reading deeply, we find our own plots and stories unfolding through the language and voice of others."
(Robert P. Waxler and Maureen P. Hall,Transforming Literacy: Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing. Emerald Group, 2011)
"[Judith] Roberts and [Keith] Roberts  rightly identify students' desire to avoid the deep readingprocess, which involves substantial time-on-task. When experts read difficult texts, they read slowly and reread often. They struggle with the text to make it comprehensible. They hold confusing passages in mental suspension, having faith that later parts of the text may clarify earlier parts. They 'nutshell' passages as they proceed, often writing gist statements in the margins. They read a difficult text a second and a third time, considering first readings as approximations or rough drafts. They interact with the text by asking questions, expressing disagreements, linking the text with other readings or with personal experience.
"But resistance to deep reading may involve more than an unwillingness to spend the time. Students may actually misunderstand the reading process. They may believe that experts are speed readers who don't need to struggle. Therefore students assume that their own reading difficulties must stem from their lack of expertise, which makes the text 'too hard for them.' Consequently, they don't allot the study time needed to read a text deeply."
(John C. Bean, Engaging Ideas: The Professor's Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom, 2nd ed. Jossey-Bass, 2011
"Why is marking up a book indispensable to reading? First, it keeps you awake. (And I don't mean merely conscious; I mean awake.) In the second place, reading, if it is active, is thinking, and thinking tends to express itself in words, spoken or written. The marked book is usually the thought-through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts you had, or the thoughts the author expressed."
(Mortimer J. Adler and Charles Van Doren,How to Read a Book. Rpt. by Touchstone, 2014)
"In> Psychological Sciencein 2009, researchers used brain scans to examine what happens inside people's heads as they read fiction. They found that 'readers mentally simulate each new situation encountered in a narrative. Details about actions and sensation are captured from the text and integrated with personal knowledge from past experiences.' The brain regions that are activated often 'mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities.' Deep reading, says the study's lead researcher, Nicole Speer, 'is by no means a passive exercise.' The reader becomes the book."
(Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains. W.W. Norton, 2010
"[Nicholas] Carr's charge [in the article "Is Google Making Us Stupid?"The Atlantic, July 2008] that superficiality bleeds over into other activities such as deep readingand analysis is a serious>"What is . . . not clear is if people are engaging in new types of activity that replace the function of deep reading."
(Martin Weller,The Digital Scholar: How Technology is Transforming Scholarly Practice. Bloomsbury Academic, 2011)
Deep reading doesn’t require any specific set of strategies, all you need to do is read at the pace at which you can fully absorb the information of a particular book and allow yourself to reflect>However, there are some things you can do to further pull yourself into whatever you’re reading and make it a deeper and more meaningful experience.
Here are a few tips for creating a deeper reading experience:
If a chapter or passage in the book confuses you or leads you to enter deep in thought, stop and allow yourself to think>Some books just aren’t meant to rush through and that’s okay, you should place your focus>
Or reread it. True comprehension and application of any text (we’re talking specifically non-fiction here of course) virtually requires rereading. However, fiction benefits from this as well. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve picked up some new detail I missed from>
Don’t hesitate to write in the book or>: Some books require a little note-taking. Or, at least, they can benefit from it. When you need to think through something or want to come back to an idea, write about it.
Pair reading>. In fiction, this generally manifests as reading an entire series and other related books from that series’s universe together all in>Deep reading has a lot of benefits but it can be a bit difficult to get into with the way the digital era has conditioned our attention spans.
I’d suggest pairing a deep reading in the beginning with a digital detox for that reason. However, either way, if you push through that initial resistance you’ll find yourself quickly becoming immersed in the text and find the value in deep reading.
ill we lose the “deep reading” brain in a digital culture? No>The preceding paragraph provides a legitimate synopsis of this essay. It also exemplifies the kind of reduced reading that concerns me greatly, both for expert adult readers and even more so for young novice readers, those who are learning how to read in a way that helps them to comprehend and expand upon the information given.
The challenges surrounding how we learn to think about what we read raise profound questions. They have implications for us intellectually, socially and ethically. Whether an immersion in digitally dominated forms of reading will change the capacity to think deeply, reflectively and in an intellectually autonomous manner when we read is a question well worth raising.
In my work>Socrates contended that the seeming permanence of the printed word would delude the young into thinking they had accessed the crux of knowledge, rather than simply decoded it. For him,>Using a 21st century paraphrase, the operative word is “short-circuited.” I use it to segue into a different, yet concrete way of conceptualizing Socrates’s elegantly described worries. Modern imaging technology allows us to scan the brains of expert and novice readers and observe how human brains learn to read. Briefly, here is what we find: Whenever we learn something new, the brain forms a new circuit that connects some of the brain’s original structures. In the case of learning to read, the brain builds connections between and among the visual, language and conceptual areas that are part of our genetic heritage, but that were never woven together in this way before.
Gradually we are beginning to understand the stunning complexity that is involved in the expert reader’s brain circuit. For example, when reading even a single word, the first milliseconds of the reading circuit are largely devoted to decoding the word’s visual information and connecting it to all that we know about the word from its sounds to meanings to syntactic functions. The virtual automaticity of this first set of stages allows us in the next milliseconds to go beyond the decoded text. It is within the next precious milliseconds that we enter a cognitive space where we can connect the decoded information to all that we know and feel. In this latter part of the process of reading, we are given the ability to think new thoughts of our own: the generative core of the reading process.
Perhaps no>The act of going beyond the text to analyze, infer and think new thoughts is the product of years of formation. It takes time, both in milliseconds and years, and effort to learn to read with deep, expanding comprehension and to execute all these processes as an adult expert reader. When it comes to building this reading circuit in a brain that has no preprogrammed setup for it, there is no genetic guarantee that any individual novice reader will ever form the expert reading brain circuitry that most of us form. The reading circuit’s very plasticity is also its Achilles’ heel. It can be fully fashioned over time and fully implemented when we read, or it can be short-circuited—either early>Because we literally and physiologically can read in multiple ways, how we read—and what we absorb from our reading—will be influenced by both the content of our reading and the medium we use.
Few need to be reminded of the transformative advantages of the digital culture’s democratization of information in our society. That is not the issue I address here. Rather, in my research, I seek to understand the full implications for the reader who is immersed in a reading medium that provides little incentive to use the full panoply of cognitive resources available.
We know a great deal about the present iteration of the reading brain and all of the resources it has learned to bring to the act of reading. However, we still know very little about the digital reading brain. My major worry is that, confronted with a digital glut of immediate information that requires and receives less and less intellectual effort, many new (and many older) readers will have neither the time nor the motivation to think through the possible layers of meaning in what they read. The omnipresence of multiple distractions for attention—and the brain’s own natural attraction to novelty—contribute to a mindset toward reading that seeks to reduce information to its lowest conceptual denominator. Sound bites, text bites, and mind bites are a reflection of a culture that has forgotten or become too distracted by and too drawn to the next piece of new information to allow itself time to think.
We need to find the ability to pause and pull back from what seems to be developing into an incessant need to fill every millisecond with new information. As I was writing this piece, a New York Times reporter contacted me to find out whether I thought Internet reading might aid speed reading.
“Yes,” I replied, “but speed and its counterpart—assumed efficiency—are not always desirable for deep thought.”
We need to understand the value of what we may be losing when we skim text so rapidly that we skip the precious milliseconds of deep reading processes. For it is within these moments—and these processes in our brains—that we might reach our own important insights and breakthroughs. They might not happen if we’ve skipped>Our failure to do this may leave us confronted with a situation that technology visionary Edward Tenner described in 2006: “It would be a shame if brilliant technology were to end up threatening the kind of intellect that produced it.”
However, in modern society, it seems to most people that classical literary works are both outdated and time-consuming compared with their modem counterparts like TV programs, movies, and video games. Only a few people bother to spend a lot of time reading classics. And in the market, those fashionable reading materials, which may cater to modem people's love of fashion, are taking the place of the masterpieces. One of the reasons behind the phenomenon is that there are so many other leisure activities in the modern society that young people prefer these things for fun to classical literary works.
As the backbone of this society, college students should be fully aware of the importance of reading classics. Therefore, we should read those classical works our ancestors have left to us as much as possible, and advocate the importance of classics so that an increasing number of people can enjoy the pleasure and benefit from reading classics.